An implant is a root device made of titanium that is put inside the bone and later becomes a base for future tooth crowns or prostheses. Titanium is biocompatible material, that’s why the human body “doesn’t see” it and never rejects as a foreign body.
With the help of dental implants the following problems can be solved:
How are the dental implants put?
An implant is a screw that is screwed in the jaw bone and not in the gum, as many people think by mistake. The gum is a quite thin part of the mucous membrane,that covers only the external part of the jaw bone that’s why the gum can’t be a proper surrounding for fixing an implant. In order to fix an implant in the jaw bone a cutting should be done on the gum in order to unfold the bone.
After this with special drill and fraser an area is opened where an implant will be screwed in future. It is very important that the area opened with the drill and fraser be of exact diameter and of exact depth in order to screw the implant in the bone easily, to fix it without any extra movement.
In already fixed implant a sterile titanium vent is screwed (it is a thin, little screw that prevents the growth of the mucous membrane and bone into the implant, which can be an obstacle while screwing the base in the implant).
The implant with vent is closed by gums (that had been cut during the first step in order to unfold the bone) and the gums are sewed. After all this procedure the implant is considered to be fixed and the recovering period starts. Usually it lasts 1-3 weeks and this period depends on the size and the degree of complexity of the operation.
When the operation wound is recovered the dentist examines the gums, takes an X-ray image if needed and takes the threads out. After this procedure the patient is free to go home and wait some 2-3 months while the implant coalesces.
Then the patient returns to the clinic where the dentist does a very thin cutting on the gums, opens the coalesced implant, screws out the vent and places a gum shaping device. The meaning of this procedure can be explained this way: the dentist brings the implant out to the mouth and prepares to cover it with the dental crown.
As the diameter of the implant is practically always less than that of the tooth (in the place where it is inside the gum) the same gum shaping device enlarges the gum in a way for the dental crown look like a natural tooth. The gum shaping procedure lasts 1-2 weeks. Then the shape is taken and sent to the technician’s laboratory in order to make a crown.
In the laboratory the technician makes a suitable base for the implant which is a transitional material that is meant for fixing the implant and the crown.
To resume we can say that all the structure is a construction made from implant-base-crown. And it has its meaning for if there is need to change the dental crown in some 10-15 years the procedure will be much easier. In this case the implant won’t be changed any more, they will change only the dental crown.
Who can’t have implants?
The patients who suffer from diseases like diabet or hypertension, as well as those who have habits like smoking, drinking or drug problems, can’t have implants.
What kind of difficulties can emerge during the implantation and how to prevent them?
When the doctor knows the anatomy of jaw well enough and has the image of X-ray Computed tomography that lets him/her see the relationship of future implants with all structures, he/she can prevent all kind of difficulties. Sometimes during the implantation operation big vessels are hurt and this can cause long-time bleeding or hematoma, as well as some nerves can be hurt which can cause numbness on a certain part of the face. If the patient doesn’t give up bad habits like smoking, drinking, etc. after the operation, doesn’t take proper care of oral cavity, it may cause exposure of the jaw bone, inflammation around the implant (Peri-implantitis) and a danger to lose the implant.