Periodontitis is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium. Today periodontitis is one of the most widespread stomatological diseases; it became a social problem because it destroys the basic function of teeth-the grinding process, causes gum bleeding, and as a result leads to loss of teeth, besides the infection of periodontal pockets affects the whole organism negatively.
To every person exists periodontitis to some extent. First symptom of this chronic disease may be bleeding gums while cleaning teeth.
Some of the reasons of the development of this disease might be tooth caries, rough edges of tooth inlays, etc. But the main reasons of the development of periodontitis are dental deposits and dental tartars.
As a result of the accumulation of dental deposit an inflammatory pathologic process is developed at the gum line called gingivitis. During 2-3 weeks it penetrates under the gums eroding dentogingival firmness.
Gingivitis is a curable disease. It is cured after removal of dental deposits and tartars and after passing a course of treatment. In case of keeping oral hygiene properly the level of health would be stable. But in case the oral hygiene is ignored dental deposits and tartars would gather, an inflammatory process would develop spreading over the bone and connective tissues; as a result periodontitis would develop, which would lead to irrevocable changes in periodontium.
Periodontitis is not a condemnation. Today dentistry struggles against the periodontitis effectively due to the new methods of diagnosis and treatment. The sooner the disease is diagnosed the easier it is treated and no necessity for surgical intervention rises.
Only the doctor’s examination is not enough for diagnosis, so each patient passes detailed examination of periodontal tissues in the clinic to detect periodontitis in its early stage.
During the examination the following parameters are taken into consideration:
- oral hygiene,
- bleeding during probing
- loosening of dentogingival firmness
- the level of bone tissue (X-ray imaging)
In our clinic the diagnosis is made with computer tomography.
The level severity of lesion is detected by destruction of the bone of alveolar ridge or by the depth of pockets. The enumerated basic signs give the opportunity to describe the pathologic procedure in the periodontium. Nevertheless, to work out the therapeutic approach a whole list of complementary data is needed:
- the characteristics of occlusion
- disarrangement of teeth
- Detection of tooth supraeruptions
- People older 25 having no erosion of dental tubercle
- Moving teeth, the level of moving (along with the X-ray data)
The symptoms of periodontitis are:
- gum bleeding, this is the one of the main symptoms telling you should turn to doctor
- unpleasant odor in the mouth
- existence of suppuration in the mouth cavity
- naked roots of teeth, moving
Periodontitis and its symptoms are not accompanied with pain and develop slowly, thus even in case of smallest changes in the mouth cavity it is necessary to turn to a dentist.
Some other reasons of the development of the illness of periodontium might be untreated caries, law-quality tooth stoppers which become the reason of the accumulation of bacterial plaque.
The pathology of occlusion and partial absence of teeth are factors of chronic injury of periodontium that accelerate the process of erosion of periodontium. For the productive treatment of periodontitis complex examinations are necessary based on which the treatment and health recovery of pathological process of gums is planned. It is necessary to start with examination and diagnosis.
The complex treatment of periodontitis consists of several stages:
The first and obligatory stage is scaling and dental root smoothing, as well as the patient should be taught the rules of oral hygiene always keeping under control the accumulation of tooth deposit. In the initial stage of periodontitis that is the only treatment, if causal treatment is not necessary.
The productivity of the firs stage is evaluated two months later. The necessary oral hygiene, the reduction of periodontal pockets in depth, the eradication of gum bleeding testifies about stable results.
If the pathologic process is not eradicated despite the necessary oral hygiene, then a pass is made to the next stage of the treatment-the surgical intervention of periodontium, which has the aim of:
- recovering tissues
- treating the remnant of pathological process of periodontium
- in some cases formal changing of the periodontium, gingiva and alveolar bone to get their physiological form
Also implantation is done within the surgical treatment of periodontitis.